A growing number of cyber-attacks on key installations have successfully put systems out of action over the past two years, a study has revealed.
A survey of security professionals in six countries, including the UK, by the Ponemon Institute found 90% had been hit by at least one successful attack.
Staff in the utilities, energy, health and transport sectors were questioned.
Experts said the results are a wake-up call for an industry that often under-reports attacks and the damage done.
Staff tasked with keeping critical infrastructure systems running often kept details secret for security reasons, they said.
The report also concludes that a lack of resources and intelligence about “relentless and continuous” cyber-attacks are the industry’s biggest concern.